مطالعه‌ ترفندهای اجرایی تبلیغات تجاری با تأکید بر هنر تعاملی در سال‌های 2000 – 2017

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، دانشگاه شاهد، تهران، ایران

2 دانشجو کارشناسی ارشد ارتباط تصویری، دانشگاه شاهد، تهران، ایران

چکیده

مفهوم ساده تبلیغ یعنی جهت‌دهی به افکار عمومی با قصد و نیت قبلی به سمت و سوی خاص به واسطه خلاقیت در اجرای تکنیک است. در این میان تبلیغات محیطی[i] مهم‌ترین ابزار ارتباطی و آموزشی در جوامع هستند که قدرتی فراتر از تصور دارند. تبلیغات شهری[ii] یکی از کار آمدترین شاخه‌های تبلیغ در گرافیک محیطی[iii] است، که در بسیاری از کشورهای پیش‌رفته دنیا از آن برای زیباسازی فضای شهری، اطلاع‌رسانی و تبلیغات تجاری[iv] استفاده می‌شود. بستر تبلیغات محیطی از طریق نوشتاری و تصویری در معرض دید مخاطبان پیاده و سواره در فضای عمومی شهر است. در این پژوهش کوشش شده است تکنیک‌های اجرایی تعاملی در تبلیغات تجاری مطالعه شود. هدف اصلی؛ بررسی ترفندهای اجرایی در تبلیغات تجاری و ویژگی‌های آن جهت انتقال پیام به صورت مؤثر به مخاطب بوده است. این پژوهش به روش توصیفی- تحلیلی انجام شده و جمع‌آوری اطلاعات آن به شیوه‌ی کتابخانه‌ای است، و در نهایت با استفاده از داده‌های به‌دست آمده به بررسی تحلیل نمونه‌هایی از تبلیغات جهان پرداخت نموده، چنان که نتایج حاصل از این پژوهش نشان می‌دهد شیوه تعاملی با تکنیک‌های اجرایی از جمله "تعاملی‌رایانه‌ای، هنر حجمی، هنر الکترونیکی و هنر دیجیتالی" بیشترین تأثیر را در اقناع مخاطبین داشته‌ است.



[i] Environmental advertising


[ii] Urban advertising


[iii] Environmental Graphic


[iv] Commercial advertisements

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Studying Commercial Advertising Executive Tricks with an Emphasis on Interactive Art in 2000 – 2017

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyyed Naseddin Emamfir 1
  • somayeh rasoulipour 2
1 Dr. Seyyed Naseddin Emamfir (Corresponding Author), Assistant Professor, Faculty of Arts, Shahed University
2 Student, Master of Visual Communication, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

 
Extended Abstract
 
Introduction and statement of the problem:
the concept of advertising refers to means of directing public opinion with previous intentions towards a particular direction.  There should, of course, be some creativity in the technique of implementing advertising. Needless to say that environmental advertising is one of the most important communication and educational tool in societies with a high level of public opinion power. It should also be mentioned that urban advertising is one of the most efficient branches of advertising since some environmental graphics are used to beautify urban space, information, and commercial advertising. Environmental advertising is a platform for any information that is presented to the public and pedestrian viewing in the city's public space by means of text and video. Therefore, environmental graphics should take into consideration the elements of aesthetics, audience analysis, creativity, and content attractions.  Audiences present their plan and idea by the most effective creativity. This is where the concept of interactive advertising is brought into the analysis as the purpose of interactive advertising is to discover the objective of advertising.  In other words, it refers to the audience's participation and engagement and getting him/her to the interaction process. Since the audience selects and processes the information mentally, the amount of impact depends, for the most part, on the audience's engagement with the advertisement and, on their choices during participation. Getting the audience's attention and making them be willing to show their positive attitude towards something is the ultimate and main purpose of advertising. Nevertheless, the design process across advertising media institutions are different. The designer targets designing as a collaborative process for the audience within the context of interactive advertising.  This will help the audience to achieve an objective discovery of the message during the interaction with advertising.
 
Theoretical Framework:
Using such a framework, here, we tried to offer a study on the interactive techniques in commercial advertising given the capabilities that are offered by the interactive art in attracting audiences.
A creative design leads to repeated engaging in environmental advertising. The cost of environmental advertising is very high in cases where small and medium businesses cannot afford it. But by choosing the right executive technique, one can greatly reduce the cost of environmental advertising and increase its effectiveness. Due to the use of advertising as a communication medium for the purpose of promoting the product, obsolete traditional practices, and the lack of contact of the audience with advertising messages, artists in recent decades have been using new ways of attracting audiences towards both cultural and commercial products.
Commercial advertising is a communication process that is responsible for introducing goods and services that can persuade the audience towards buying it. Investigating the capabilities of graphics and environmental advertising, and interactive art as influential factors in urban advertising performance led us here to analyze the performance tricks and use of interactive arts in commercial product advertising. On this basis, samples of environmental advertising (billboards) have been selected and analyzed non-randomly; however, it is worth noting that creativity and innovation in executing tricks have also been considered. The purpose of this research is to study interactive media and how each of them is used as a trick in urban commercial advertising.  In addition, the properties of such elements are also examined so to identify how they convey the message effectively to their audience.
 
Methodology:
To answer the research question, we used the theory of "Kress and Van Leeuwen" to identify the commercial advertising executive tricks that are used that also engage the audience. We also used a descriptive-analytical approach to collect and analyze the data. In other words, it is an inductive method and is based on archival data gathering from books, articles. To this end, the commercial advertising execution tricks in some samples in Iran have been studied and identified between 2000 and 2017. The samples were collected from print and electronic sources to find out the tricks used in commercial advertising, so far and then these examples have been adapted to the methods suggested so far for creating advertising.
 
Results and discussion:
Some of the findings indicate that investigating commercial advertising executive tricks (from 2000 to 2017) based on data from a sample, the research question is answered.  The question is:  what creative execution tricks have been used to attract audiences?” All data gathered from the samples based on interactive advertisements.   15 samples were evaluated based on new media techniques that these are as follows: at first, the computer interactive art, net art and finally (collaborative art, telerobotic art, and telematic art in equally) are the most commonly used techniques. Of course, it is worth noting that the cybernetic, relational, and satellite arts have not been implemented in any of the 15 selected samples.  Among other new media, the highest usage rates are as follows: first, volumetric art; second (electronic and digital arts in equally); third (Light and 3D art equally) and finally (Performing and layout arts equally) have been successful in attracting audiences.
 
Conclusion: Based on the analysis conducted in the present study, interactive art and volume art have been the most-used type of advertising, as they were successful in persuading their audiences.  They were active and had physical interaction with the audience.  Since they did not use the layout art and performance art they faced some sort of inactivity among the audience. Collaborative art, telematics, and robotics are also less effective in persuading audiences because they only have indirect communication with them. 
 
Prominent results:
In view of the findings and discussed topics in the present study, it can be argued that interactive media have been successful and that is because of their relationship and partnership in the advertising process.  They also managed to get audiences engagement with the environment. However, what is important is that there are media that do not interact with the audience among the interactive media. For example, telerobotic art seems to have failed to make significant and effective contact with audiences due to the inactivity, and the audience does not interact with the site. Accordingly, those types of media are more effective in commercial advertising that have interaction with the audience and the surrounding environment.
 
Keywords: Urban advertising; commercial advertising; interactive art
 
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کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Urban advertising
  • commercial advertising
  • interactive art