فضا و زمان دیجیتال در هنر چند رسانه ای با تأکید بر آثار دنیل استیگمن مانگرین و الساندرو راواگنان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته دکتری پژوهش هنر، دانشگاه شاهد، تهران، ایران

2 استاد یار و عضو هیئت علمی دانشکد ه هنر، دانشگاه شاهد، تهران، ایران

3 استادیار، گروه پژوهش هنر، دانشکده هنر، دانشگاه شاهد

چکیده

هنر چند رسانه ای به منظور شکستن کیفیت خطی و سنتی فضا و زمان، بر آن است تا ادراک جدیدی از پدیده فضا و زمان را در محیط دیجیتال فراهم آورد و به طور بنیادین آنها را بازآرایی کند.  این نوع هنری همچنین قابلیت های منحصر به فردی در فضا و زمان اثر و در تعامل با کاربران ایجاد می کند. این مقاله بر آن است تا به شناسایی دو شاخه ی مهم هنر رسانه ای جدید، یعنی هنر واقعیت مجازی و واقعیت افزوده بپردازد. در این راستا با روش نمونه گیری انتخابی، آثار دنیل استیگمن مانگرین و الساندرو راواگنان به عنوان دو هنرمند اصلی این دو شاخه ی هنری مورد شناسایی قرار گرفت. چارچوب نظری با استفاده از نظریه گوتفرید بوهم و ای جی لسینگ تدوین شده است. روش مورد استفاده توصیفی ـ تحلیلی و گردآوری مطالب نیز کتابخانه ای و با استفاده از منابع اینترنتی بوده است. نتایج پژوهش نشان داد که فضا و زمان در آثار هنر جدید رسانه ای به طور عام و هنر واقعیت مجازی، هنرواقعیت افزوده به طور خاص  به وسیلة کاربرد فرارسانه ای خود، نیروی بالقوه ای را برای آنچه حضور مجازی نامیده می شود، جهت خلق تجربه ای از بی واسطگی به نمایش میگذارد و مخاطب را در این فضا و زمان  غوطه ور می سازد و یا آن را یا زمان و فضای واقعی ترکیب می کند. نهایتاً فضا و زمان در این نوع آثار  بسیار  سیال و پویا هستند که در امتداد آن تماشای منفعلانه ی مخاطب در درک فضا و زمان اثر را از بیننده صرف به  تعامل گری فعال مبدل می کند. طبق نظریه بوهم، زمان نمایش توسط هنرمندان از پیش شکل گرفته و مدت زمان دریافت آثار هر دو نوع هنری وابسته به تعاملگری و کنش مخاطبان است و با حضور ایشان معنا می گیرد. هم چنین مخاطب در درک این آثار طبق نظر لسینگ می تواند از خوانش های همزمان و متوالی برای درک فضا و زمان آثار بهره ببرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Space and Digital Time in Multimedia Art: A Study of Art Works of Daniel Steegmann Mangrane and Alessandro Ravagnan

نویسندگان [English]

  • Razieh Mokhtari Dehkordi 1
  • Ahmad Nadalian 2
  • Mohammad Fazeli 3
1 Corresponding author, Ph.D. in Research of Art, Shahed University, Iran
2 Assistant Professor of Art Research Department, Shahed University, Iran
3 Assistant Professor of Art Research Department, Shahed University, Iran
چکیده [English]

 
Extended Abstract 
 
Introduction and Statement of the Problem:
Multimedia art is a term used in the art of the twentieth century, for any combination of digital media, graphics, sound, video, animation and text writing. The multimedia art, in terms of the nature of space and time, can be classified into two categories; the art of multimedia based on old media is a combination of old media such as painting, photography, sculpture, and more. New media-based multimedia art uses computers to create new techniques or change traditional techniques for creating and editing all forms of media. The concept of space in multimedia art usually means the meaning of understanding the location, time and objects, and their relationship with the distances and dimensions, components, and visual elements of a work of meaning. Therefore, in this research, space means the overall effects of the effect in all its material and content dimensions, and in particular in the digital environment. Time is also one of the most abstract, complex, and obscure concepts of ancient Greek history that have involved the minds of philosophers, which is partly due to its fluidity.  Time in this research is the same linear definition for which it has a source and destination. The main issue of this research is to explain how digital space and time are in multimedia.
 
Theoretical Background
In line with this research, one can mention that the article by Farhad Sassani, titled "Time in the Cyberspace" (2006), in Journal of the Academy, No. 1, compares the comparative time between times in cyberspace with time in language.  It also displays Time in cyberspace divides into five branches: 1. static; 2. Semi-static; 3. Awesome; 4. Multiple and revealing; and 5. Multiple and hidden.
 
Methodology
This paper is based on a descriptive-analytical method and a method for collecting data from a library type using articles and digital. The Internet has been used to collect art samples. Interview with artists was also another tool of compilation.
 
Results and Discussion
First, it is necessary to explain a brief overview of virtual reality and augmented reality: Virtual reality requires hardware and software so that the hardware or any other device such as a headset or application into the virtual world can access it and see simulated content. Therefore, in the world of virtual reality, the user cannot communicate with the real world. In other words, it is confined to the virtual world. From these definitions, we conclude that virtual reality is virtual and does not allow a person to be present simultaneously in the real world and the virtual world. Augmented reality is a direct or indirect representation of the actual physical environment that is gained by adding or adding virtual graphics information generated by the computer. The augmented reality combines both real and virtual data in a three-dimensional fashion and is interactive. You can imagine the augmented reality as the middle state, between the real world and the full virtual world.
Daniel Steegmann Mangrané is an artist that his artworks are based on virtual reality. His body of work includes various formats.  It is based on subtle, poetic experimentation that questions the relationship between language and the world.  His artwork, principally conceptual, shows a marked concern with existence and the specific characteristics of objects, at the same time activating abstract language as a principle to generate thought, and uses the idea of unstable meaning and dematerialized constructions as a way of addressing questions of the “object." The phantom consists of a virtual reality environment accessed through a pair of Oculus. The virtual forest viewable via Oculus Rift may provide us with novel insights into how we see and coincidentally manufacture the world. Alternatively, that most elevated and immaculate mathematical constructions of reality may evince the impossibility of its representation. The near-perfection of the image ends up refuting its power or at least exposing the impressive, elaborate work of abstraction and quantification that goes into collapsing the gulf between representation and perception. We see ourselves seeing the world as an image of our fabrication. And, despite claims by Oculus Rift's creator that the device's "ultra-low latency 360° head tracking" allows you to "seamlessly look around the virtual world just as you would in real life," the experience may veer into abstraction, no matter how liquid-crystal clear the parallel images flickering before our eyes.
Alessandro Ravagnan is an Italian multimedia artist who, using the augmented reality, combines real space with cyberspace and challenges sensory perception of space and time. His multimedia works "Enso Membrane" are presented at various exhibition spaces. Time in his works is related to space and how the audience perceives. This means that the user determines the time to receive the effect. Ravagnan has recently presented his new works in non-exhibit spaces, which make space and time dynamic. The user can have access to works in any space and anywhere in the world, and, depending on the space in which it is located, will enable other senses of perception.
 
Conclusion
The art of multimedia, either in the form of virtual reality art or in the form of the art of augmented reality, is to transform the space and time of the work.  This is done through using digital images and technology, and, in the context of the passive viewing of the audience in understanding the space and time of the work, From a mere viewer to participant or active engagement. In the works of Daniel Steegman Mangrané, as the selected artist of virtual reality multimedia works, and Alessandro Ravagnan, an artist, selected for augmented reality by multimedia, the audience can have a variety of activities and activities. In this paper, it was argued that, according to Gottfried Boehm, it is possible to differentiate the dimension of time in multimedia art: the time of presentation and the time of reception. The time of reception in the works of both artists depends on the engagement and interaction of the audience, and the time of the show is pre-formed by the artist, which also means the audience. The time of reception in the works of both artists depends on the engagement and interaction of the audience, and the time of the show is pre-formed by the artist, which also means the audience. According to Lessing, the audience can also use two types of readings to understand the space and time of the works: simultaneous readings and sequential readings. In this process, the audience can overcome the linear readings of time. In the multimedia space environment, digital media contacts the audience with a variety of time, as well as the boundary of time in cyberspace, and it becomes multiplicity, infinite, and can be broken or combined with real space. In this kind of arts, the artist links the sensory perception of users to technological tools. Space and digital time in the art of virtual reality and the added value of using our own fictitious application, we show the potential for what we call virtual creation to create an experience of immediacy and immerses the audience in this space and time. Alternatively, it combines both real time and space.
 
Keywords: Digital Space, Digital Time, Multimedia Art, Daniel Steegmann Mangrané, Alessandro Ravagnan
 
References
 

Boehm, Gottfried (1987), Bild und Zeit, in Das Phänomen Zeit in Kunst und Wissenschaft, ed, Hannelore Paflik, Weinheim: VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, Acta humaniora, pp. 1-22
Carmigniani, J. & Furht, B. (2011). Augmented reality: an overview. In Handbook of augmented reality Springer New York. (pp. 3-46).
De Chardin, Teilhard. (1959) The Phenomenon of Man. Harper and Row
Erman, John & Richard M. Gale (1998) Time, in the Cambridge Dictionary of Philosephy, Cambridge University Press.
Geroimenko, V. (2012, July). Augmented reality technology and art: the analysis and visualization of evolving conceptual models. In 2012 16th International Conference on Information Visualisation (pp. 445-453).
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Merleau-Ponty, Maurice (1968) The Visible and the Invisible: Followed by Working Notes, Vorthwestern University Press, and Evanston.
McClain, Jeoraldean (2009), Time in the visual arts: Lessing and Modern Criticism,Copenhagen: Forlaget politisk revy, 9-27.
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کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Digital Space
  • Digital Time
  • Multimedia Art
  • Daniel Steegmann Mangrané
  • Alessandro Ravagnan