عنوان مقاله [English]
Advertising in any field, especially business is considered as one of the elements of the communication in the contemporary world. Successful advertising is based on the principles such as the advertising psychology and the recognition of the target market; therefore, Facopa Company, which was founded in the thirties decade, is one of the most successful advertising agencies in Iran. Facopa that was considered an emerging phenomenon in Iran's newly established advertising by using the advertising campaigns was able to revolutionize advertising. Many advertising methods of this company were experienced for the first time in Iran. Rather than relying on the visual capabilities of advertising, Facopa had a tendency toward the advertising psychology that its wonderful effect can be seen in expected, inductive and persuasive advertisements, and so on. In this article, Facopa advertising campaigns are studied according to the topics such as advertising and communication patterns, advertising and psychological components. This research has been conducted by a descriptive and analytical method and a documentary method by flipping through Ettelaat Newspaper and collecting Facopa advertising campaigns. The aim is to recognize the field of advertising, the advertising psychology and its place in the history of advertising in Iran. Fakopa relied more on psychological knowledge and knowledge of the target market than on visual knowledge, and encouraged audiences to buy through indoctrination methods. Fakopa's success owes much to the controversial propaganda that both affected and affected his community; That is why Fakopa acts as a brand in the field of advertising psychology. Fakupa's study helps to understand the history of Iranian propaganda, which has been abandoned. Psychology conventionally has four functions: to describe, explain, predict, and change behavior, which encompasses all human psychological processes. All the various tasks, branches and trends of psychology fall under these four headings. By recognizing the existential nature of each person, psychologists find the power of their psychiatric treatment. Cognition, belief, indoctrination and prediction of human behavior is something that is influenced by advertising, so many consider advertising as a technique to use psychological methods to engage the audience.
The psychology of advertising is to recognize the factors that cause people to be influenced by advertising and react accordingly. It should be known that not every message, with any quality, can be absorbed by the audience. Not all people receive the same message and do not receive it in the same way. Also, a message that is potentially receptive is not absorbed suddenly and suddenly in society; Therefore, paying attention to the principles and rules of social psychology along with understanding the culture and social traditions can make the work of propaganda much easier and more convenient than it is imagined.
In designing advertising campaigns, it is very important to pay attention to the psychology of advertising; Because seeing an advertisement among a multitude of advertisements needs to attract the audience and convince them. Fakupa, as one of the first advertising companies with a style in Iranian advertising, was able to have a great impact on the recognition of domestic companies and their products with the help of psychological and marketing techniques, and on the other hand, with its innovations in the advertising industry, Be a constituency. A campaign that promotes an ad in several stages; The first step is Fakupa's clever approach. Staying in the mind of the audience with methods such as expected advertising and raising people's enthusiasm by holding a lottery is one of the most common techniques used by Fakupa. To achieve the target market, Fakopa has used a hierarchical model of persuasion that includes knowledge, interest, desire, and buying. In the linear continuum, the consumer moves through various mental states, from ignorance to consciousness, and then interest arises and a desire for the desired brand emerges. Eventually the consumer is motivated to take action, which is in the form of a purchase. It also uses three-step conceptualization of cognitive, emotional, and action by stimulating emotional actions. In many of his ads, he uses emotional and intellectual attractions in combination. Fakopa shines like a brand in the field of advertising of the Pahlavi period and created its own style and context by managing advertising campaigns. In this respect, Fakupa's innovations and achievements are unparalleled in their kind.
In the present study, a descriptive-analytical method is used to analyze Fakopa campaigns. Content analysis helps to identify the components of advertising psychology and find these indicators in the advertising of the ten Fakopa campaigns. Data collection was done by flipping through the information newspaper of the decades 1336-1341 and pictorial samples of the book "230 years of commercial advertising in the Persian language press" (2013) written by Mohsen Mirzaei.
Numerous books have been published in the field of advertising and marketing, and many academic researches have been done in the form of dissertations; But looking at the history of advertising in Iran is very neglected and this shortcoming can be seen in academic writings. The book "230 years of commercial advertising in the Persian language press" (2013) written by Mohsen Mirzaei in four volumes is a rare example in this field; A book in which Mohsen Mirzaei, in addition to an analytical review of the Iranian advertising space from the late Qajar period to the fifties, describes his personal experiences at the Fakopa Advertising Agency and has conducted several interviews with experts and colleagues at Fakupa. . The book "Psychology of Advertising" (2011) by Bob Phoenix and Wolf Gang Stroeb, translated by Mohammad Arabi in different chapters, deals with the importance of audience persuasion and the psychology of cognition. The book "Psychology of Business Advertising" (2013) by Max Sutherland and translated by Sina Ghorbanloo deals with the issues of advertising in the new era, modern media ads and the importance of psychology in marketing.