عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
The existence of information and communication technology infrastructures such as landline phones, mobile phones, internet and broadband has made it possible for individuals, companies and governments to have better access to information, knowledge and technical skills on a large scale and at high speed. Hence, it is argued that the development of information and communication technology has fundamentally improved the efficiency of resource allocation, markedly reduced production costs, which are a constant concern of companies, and increasingly provided opportunities for investment in all economic sectors.
ICT is one of the top four industries in the category of healthcare, agriculture and public services due to its wide applicability in various businesses. Especially, the speed of its penetration and widespread use by the mass of people, along with the aforementioned characteristics and potentials, have caused many governments to prepare extensive programs to improve the level of health, education and government services to citizens by creating funds for the development of the infrastructure of the information and communication technology industry. Allocation of financial resources and changes in existing laws and regulations are part of these programs.
Due to the increasing importance of information and communication technology in global developments, researchers have paid great attention to the development effects at the national and business levels. There is a general consensus in the literature that technologies have a broad positive effect on economic and social development. This tendency has led to extensive measures to use information and communication technology for development goals such as economic growth, wealth production, wealth distribution, poverty reduction, expansion of educational opportunities, promotion of health services and access to public/government services. Although related literature emphasizes its key role in accelerating economic growth, some researchers' arguments emphasize mixed results. While some writers point to a positive effect in developed countries, others do not consider this to be a general rule. They believe, especially in underdeveloped regions, the effects are negative.
Based on these two different approaches, this article deals with the impact of information and communication technology on development. Based on a theoretical background, first of all, it is argued that communication is the basis of change and development of human society. Hence, the development of new technologies is associated with developmental consequences. Then, based on the empirical evidence regarding the penetration and expansion of digital technologies in the current world, it is suggested, these technologies cause extensive developmental consequences, mainly due to the higher intensity and speed of their impact. It is concluded that although information and communication technology apparently have positive development effects, their expansion, like other technologies, has social and environmental side effects that are rooted in the structure of the industry itself, the existing unequal social structure, and the facilitation of criminal and illicit activities.